Waste to Energy Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Bangladesh: A Comprehensive Review
Bangladesh has an impressive track record of development and has been among the fastest growing economies in the world over the past decade, supported by a demographic dividend, strong ready-made garment (RMG) exports, remittance, and stable macroeconomic conditions. With the growth of populace and the living standards, the goods and energy consumption in Bangladesh are seen to be increased which rises the waste generation. Thus, municipal waste management (MSW) and energy supply are becoming the great challenges for Bangladesh. Waste to energy (WTE) conversion technologies would be a very timely solution to an ever-growing problem. These technologies are environment-friendly and cost effective; however, these are not popular within the developing country Bangladesh. This paper discusses current waste status, significant progresses and future prospect of solid waste management process as well as evaluates the best possible WTE technology suitable for Bangladesh. It is found that Bangladesh produces approximately 13,332 tons of MSW per day in which almost 26% and 12% of total wastes are generated by its capital city, Dhaka and Chattogram, respectively. The incineration process for electricity production is seen to be the most effective WTE technology for Chattogram city. For instance, for one ton of MSW, the incineration process can provide 0.585 MWh electricity and 1.742 MWh heat with an emission factor of 0.28 ton of CO2. With an average plant capacity cost of 2.1 USD which is lower than other WTE technologies. Therefore, the incineration can be utilized as the most effective WTE technology for major cities in Bangladesh.
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