A Review on Gold Nanoparticles-Based Biosensors in Clinical and Non-Clinical Applications
Gold nanoparticles (GNP) acquire unique properties that have made significant contributions to clinical and non-clinical fields, specifically in the application of GNP’s for designing biosensor devices in which exhibit novel functional properties. Many properties of GNP’s are reviewed in this literature including optical properties, biocompatibility, conductivity, catalytic properties, high surface-to-volume ratio, and high density of the GNPs, that make them excellent in the application of constructing GNP-based biosensors. This literature review covers a specific comparison between the optical, electrochemical, and piezoelectric biosensors, as these are the three most common GNP-based biosensors. Optical biosensors are optimal due to their ability to cater to surface modification, which then leads to the ability for selective bonding. Furthermore, with the use of GNP and the sensor's non-invasive and non-toxic method of use, high-resolution images and signals can be formed. The sensitivity and specificity of electrochemical biosensors with the conductivity of GNPs, the electrodes of this stable biosensor can detect tumour markers in the human body. Piezoelectric biosensors are mass sensitive sensors and with the use of GNP, it amplifies the changes in mass. Through this, these sensors progress to be immunosensors which determine microorganisms and macromolecular compounds. As well, this review will conclude with an outline of present and future research recommendations for real-world application of the three GNP-based biosensors discussed.
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